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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Chunxiao (Tricia) Chigan


Mobile Mesh Network based In-Transit Visibility (MMN-ITV) system facilitates global real-time tracking capability for the logistics system. In-transit containers form a multi-hop mesh network to forward the tracking information to the nearby sinks, which further deliver the information to the remote control center via satellite. The fundamental challenge to the MMN-ITV system is the energy constraint of the battery-operated containers. Coupled with the unique mobility pattern, cross-MMN behavior, and the large-spanned area, it is necessary to investigate the energy-efficient communication of the MMN-ITV system thoroughly.

First of all, this dissertation models the energy-efficient routing under the unique pattern of the cross-MMN behavior. A new modeling approach, pseudo-dynamic modeling approach, is proposed to measure the energy-efficiency of the routing methods in the presence of the cross-MMN behavior. With this approach, it could be identified that the shortest-path routing and the load-balanced routing is energy-efficient in mobile networks and static networks respectively. For the MMN-ITV system with both mobile and static MMNs, an energy-efficient routing method, energy-threshold routing, is proposed to achieve the best tradeoff between them.

Secondly, due to the cross-MMN behavior, neighbor discovery is executed frequently to help the new containers join the MMN, hence, consumes similar amount of energy as that of the data communication. By exploiting the unique pattern of the cross-MMN behavior, this dissertation proposes energy-efficient neighbor discovery wakeup schedules to save up to 60% of the energy for neighbor discovery.

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)-based inter-vehicle communications is by now growingly believed to enhance traffic safety and transportation management with low cost. The end-to-end delay is critical for the time-sensitive safety applications in VANETs, and can be a decisive performance metric for VANETs.

This dissertation presents a complete analytical model to evaluate the end-to-end delay against the transmission range and the packet arrival rate. This model illustrates a significant end-to-end delay increase from non-saturated networks to saturated networks. It hence suggests that the distributed power control and admission control protocols for VANETs should aim at improving the real-time capacity (the maximum packet generation rate without causing saturation), instead of the delay itself.

Based on the above model, it could be determined that adopting uniform transmission range for every vehicle may hinder the delay performance improvement, since it does not allow the coexistence of the short path length and the low interference. Clusters are proposed to configure non-uniform transmission range for the vehicles. Analysis and simulation confirm that such configuration can enhance the real-time capacity. In addition, it provides an improved trade off between the end-to-end delay and the network capacity. A distributed clustering protocol with minimum message overhead is proposed, which achieves low convergence time.